Archiv der Kategorie: Allgemein

John Lautner, Sheats-Goldstein Residence, 1963, Angelo View Drive, Los Angeles

Everyone was looking forward with eager anticipation to visit the famous Sheats-Goldstein House that had been featured in so many commercials, magazines, and a number of movies such as Charlie’s Angels or The Big Lebowski. After getting an elaborate guided tour from James Goldstein’s assistant Roberta Leighton, we could gain a deeper inside into the renowned piece of architecture and our expectations were far exceeded. Not only did we learn about the house itself but also about the owner who is just as striking as his home. When our group gathered in front of the property, Goldstein was just about to leave and drove past us in his ivory Rolls-Royce.

The Sheats-Goldstein Residence sits hidden in the hills of Beverly Crest and is not visible from the streets. To arrive at the imposing house, we had to go down a steep and densely planted driveway where we already got a foretaste of the jungle-like garden that awaited us inside. On entering the structure, we crossed a path of concrete and glass stepping stones with no guardrails leading through a koi pond to the doorway. A large glass wall runs along the length of the walkway and you start to get a sense of the house’s principle characteristic – blending indoor and outdoor space. In this building the exterior is very much part of the interior, which is clearly shown by a lot of dynamic features. Frameless curtain walls open electronically towards Los Angeles and a huge skylight over the kitchen table provides an alfresco dining experience. In the living room, the triangular coffered ceiling with its punctuated glass windows scattering light into the room was even more impressive than expected. The borders between inside and outside seemed to dissolve. Lautner took the indoor-/outdoor architecture to an extreme by installing numerous glass walls and openings that create a feeling of transparency and bring additional daylight into the building.

Sheats-Goldstein Residence, Living Room and Pool Deck, photo taken by the author

The living room leads outside to a cantilevered concrete pool deck with magnificent views of Los Angeles and the wildly growing garden surrounding the residence. Goldstein transformed the site into a tropical forest with exotic flowers brought in by air. On a totally secluded residential estate with extensive landscaped gardens, the mansion has a sheltered and elevated character. It feels like the Sheats-Goldstein House is a modern architectural vision in the middle of the jungle. Concrete paths and stairways are leading to several hide aways throughout the property including small terraces and a James Turrell Skyspace art installation.

Attention to detail and passion for exclusiveness is demonstrated throughout the entire structure. With the press of a button, the wooden ceiling opens to let down a large LCD screen and an outdoor spa tub reveals itself from underneath the terrace. The triangular leather lounging areas perfectly suit the architectural style of the house and so does the movable built-in desk chair in the master bedroom designed by John Lautner himself. Right next to Goldstein’s king bed you will see viewing windows for the swimming pool above. Originally they were inserted so that the former owners could watch their children swim from the lower level. 

Sheats-Goldstein Residence, Master Suite, photo taken by the author

Tour guide Roberta showed us many hidden features like a see-through sink or a scale hidden in the floor to underscore the uniqueness of Mr. Goldstein’s home. As if we weren’t overwhelmed already, she also showed us the later additions to the property and took the tour to its ultimate point. When he bought the house next door to his residence, Goldstein added an infinity tennis court with an incredible panoramic view over the city. Ironically, demolishing a sibling Lautner house was part of the project building the annex which also includes offices for Mr. Goldstein and his assistants, as well as his own private nightclub appropriately named Club James.

Sheats-Goldstein Residence, Club James, photo taken by the author

Since 45 years James Goldstein and his architects have continuously developed and upgraded the house to a masterpiece of a home. It is hard to believe that this place was initially built for a family. However, it is quite conceivable to picture James Goldstein in this imposing structure. A reason for that might be the fact that the house is filled with self portraits of the basketball and fashion enthusiast. At the turn of every corner there are photos of Goldstein posing with namable celebrities and models.

Sheats-Goldstein Residence, Living Room, photo taken by the author

The home is stacked with magazines and books about architecture, basketball, and fashion. Goldstein’s eccentric designer clothes are proudly on display in the master suite. As a matter of fact his wardrobe, filled with exotic leather jackets, works automatically and with the push of a button, the clothes rack will revolve. It seems like the prestigious property is an architectural self-display of its owner who, together with John Lautner and his successors, reshaped the 1963 home into a total artwork that incorporates Goldstein’s vision. The extensive tour enabled us to experience all the architectural features of this impressive mansion and to learn about the man of the house. James Goldstein’s assistant Roberta Leighton was passionately devoted to show us around and our group greatly appreciated the opportunity to visit such a unique residence which is truly in a class of its own.

Sheats-Goldstein Residence, Master Suite, photo taken by the author

Josefine Rauch

Richard Meier, The Getty Center, 1997, 1200 Getty Center Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90049, USA

On our second last day of the field trip we left Santa Monica early in order to be in time for our full day at the Getty Centre on top of Santa Monica Mountains. After parking at street level, we journeyed to the Campus by tram. Upon our arrival we were greeted by a wide set of stairs leading up to the main access point. From here all the different parts of the Centre are walkable.

The Getty Center, photo by the author

The off-white travertine and the baked aluminium panels of Richard Meier’s design glistened in the sun as we made our way to the Getty Research Institute. Our group received the warmest welcome by one of their curatorial staff. In the commencing two hours we were given the opportunity to study a various number of plans, architectural sketches and photos from the Getty’s archives. With amazement we discovered many details in the sketches and plans as well as gained a greater understanding of how many of the buildings we went to see earlier on our trip came into existence and were structured. The architecture of John Lautner, Richard Neutra, Rudolf M. Schindler, Franklin D. Israel, William Krisel and Frank Gehry, photographed in many instances by Julius Shulman, was easier to comprehend thoroughly because of the material we were allowed to study. Engrossed in these treasures, we greatly enlarged our understanding of the houses history, structure, functioning and design. The development of each architect’s idea suddenly became much more coherent.

The session followed a guided tour through the building itself. While we were introduced to five different architectural models, exhibited in various spaces of the Institute, we gained a grasp of its departments. Architecturally, the library especially revealed itself as a fascinating space to us. In decadent clarity rooms and hallways sit within the building while the orchestrated flow of sun rays constantly permeates the visitors view.

After a short lunch break at one of the local restaurants we joined an officially guided tour through the Getty Center’s architecture and garden. Gaining knowledge about Richard Meier’s artistic intentions as well as the history of the Getty itself made this an intriguing event. We were made aware of intricate details like the grid which Meier arranged all across the outside design. Continuous, straight lines dictate the entire surface of the building.

The Getty Center courtyard, photo by the author

The manufactured look of the Aluminium panels is contrasted with the natural travertine. Handpicked feature stones were selected by the architect to display the inlayed fossils, directing to the materials origins. Walking along the outer museum’s walls we were able to observe the textured surface of these feature stones. Meier, responding to the Californian weather, also integrated outside rooms to the outdoors area. These are an expression of his grander architectural philosophy.

After our tour, we spend the following two and a half hours exploring the campus on our own. Many of our group investigated the various exhibition wings of the Getty Museum, enjoying all of the collections treasures. The Getty’s garden lend itself to a few refreshing minutes in the Los Angeles sun.

The Getty Centre Garden, photo by the author

After an art-filled day our group returned to the peace and quiet of Santa Monica by the beach, full of new impressions and inspirations of how research in the field of history of art potentially could unfold itself. Our expectation towards the Getty Research Institute and the architecture of the Getty Center were superseded.

Talitha Breidenstein

John Lautner, Silvertop, 1957, 2138 Micheltorena St; Richard Neutra, Neutra Colony, 1948-1961, Silver Lake Blvd, Neutra Place, Earl St; Rudolf M. Schindler, Droste House, 1940, 2025 Kenilworth Ave, Los Angeles, CA

Upon our arrival at Silver Lake, right after we had parked our cars in front of Neutra’s Van Der Leeuw (VDL) house, we wandered across a lawned recreational area right by the reservoirs shore. To our surprise the water level appeared to be extremely low. We later learned from one of the residents that due to an effort by the municipality the lake was emptied. The home owners of Silver Lake neighbourhood had successfully fought the city on the resolution. The reservoir is now planned to be refilled by summertime in 2017. This is only possible thanks to the end of a seven-year long drought in California.

After observing many runners, picnickers, young families with toddlers roaming about the lake’s pathways we started out on our own adventure around their neighbourhood. Walking along Silver Lake Boulevard we turned unto Glendale Boulevard heading toward Neutra’s former office building. By the large sign up front, today, it appears to house the Neutra Institute Museum of Silver Lake.

Neutra Institute, Museum of Silver Lake, photo by the author

From street level just one storey is visible but as we wondered down the driveway along side the building it revealed two levels on the back. In Neutra fashion it is a flat top roof house dominated by rectangular forms. Long, horizontal window strips as well as sun shields decorate the sides and the back. The building was poorly maintained.

As our group continued on Glendale Boulevard we then turned on to Earl Street. Walking downhill Neutra Place came up on our left side. The cul-de-sac revealed several homes designed between the years of 1948 and 1961. Returning to Earl Street we then continued to discover the second part of the Neutra Colony on Silver Lake Boulevard.

Overall, the homes seemed well taken care of, appeared to provide every owner with individual housing design and secluded living space. In conversation, most of us concluded the houses to be similar to each other in the overall design theme. Nonetheless every home featured a different structural set up. Placement of stairways, doors and window fronts helped differentiate.

Neutra Colony on Silver Lake Boulevard, photo by the author

After a quick lunch break our group decided to meander through the West side of Silver Lake hoping to catch a closer glimpse of John Lautner’s Silvertop (1957) as well as Rudolf M. Schindler’s Droste House (1940). As we ascended Kenilworth Avenue the Droste House made an appearance as the road took a turn. Gazing at the architectural sight from street level suddenly the very friendly couple owning and living in the home opened the door and welcomed us in. Excited, we followed their invitation. As they guided us through their well cared for home our group marvelled at the many details Schindler added to the design: invisible storage space, air circulation strategy, window placements et al. All of us were very appreciative of the family’s openness to share about their experience of living in and owning a Schindler designed home.

Droste House living room, photo by the author

Upon our drive leaving the neighbourhood we managed to view Lautner’s Silvertop from the distance. The shiny, curved structure clearly stood out among all the homes on Silver Lake’s West Side.

Strolling through Silver Lake left me with a furthered understanding of the neighbourhoods quality. Neutra’s, Schindler’s, Lautner’s, among many other renown architects’, homes are situated within Los Angeles’ urban context and their individual design is powerful because of it. Having previous to our visit only viewed photos and read about Silver Lake this experience led me to comprehend its and the architects‘ home architecture.

Talitha Breidenstein

Griffith Park, after 1896, Los Angeles

Griffith Park, after 1896, Los Angeles

This short insight of our trip to Griffith Park concentrates on the Observatory, opened 1935. Unfortunately there was no possibility to go and see the inside of the Observatory and visit other architecture in Griffith Park.

Los Angeles city skyline at night with the Griffith Observatory in the foreground by Dancorna21

We saw Griffith Park, especially Observatory a few times during our stay in Los Angeles. It was possible to have a look at them from the basin far away and relativley close at Hollywood Hills . The fact that this park is visible from a lot of different parts of the basin underlines the signifiance of the park for the city.

Arriving at the Observatory we parked our cars at a car park 15 minutes footpath away. We walked a curvy path which directed our attention towards Observatory. The far reaching view over Los Angeles basin opened up while walking around the Observatory like a curtain. This view differed from those we saw in other architecture in the fact that it was framed by nature. Most of the lookouts we had over Los Angeles were framed by buildings from neighborhoods. Compared to the environment of Griffith Park there were no buildings that are on the same level like the Observatory. This framing cause that the observer may feel like he is the only one looking at the city, what indicates a romantic motive. Of course there are a lot more viewpoints in the area with different directions where one find these conditions. Taking the perspective from the basin of Los Angeles one can interprete that the Observatory is enthroned on the peak of Los Angeles. This peak may also be interpreted as a boat which is anchored in front of Los Angeles to invite their inhabitants to have a good time and relax, which was the ambition of Griffith, as well as his desire to make science more accessible to the public. Although this place was more touristic then any other place we visited  the last evening watching the sunset was calm und peaceful. Unfortunately  it is not possible to come to a decision according to the thesis about the mysticism in Griffith Park. Despite that the atmosphere during dusk and sunset can be interpreted as spherical.

Jasmin Roth

http://www.griffithobservatory.org/about/history.html

 

Richard Neutra, Landfair Apartments, 1937, Westwood LA

After we visited the Schindler House in Kings Road in West Hollywood, we made our way to the Landfair Apartments by Neutra. The building complex is still inhabited by students and it is near the UCLA campus. It is barely visible from the street, because large trees obstruct the view. Further the surrounding densely populated and also it is enclosed by other modern buildings that put the exemplary architecture of Neutra in the background. We were lucky that a student of UCLA was able to give us a tour of the building and so we were allowed to have a look into the inner space. The building is located on a hill on the corner of Landfair Avenue and Ophir Drive in Westwood.

Viewed up close it looks dilapidated. We went with the student to the first floor of the one-story living quarters in the east and unfortunately here also everything looks neglected. On that floor the rooms of the students were located. From the steps on the right side you were able to access the backyard, where you were able to better view the staggered configuration of the row houses, that give the effect of separated living. Here the impact of the aesthetic of Neutras architecture was clearly visible through the uniform formation and the clarity of surface expresses itself.  Below the first floor was an expansive living room with a large window front, which gives the room light. The for Neutra so typical metal window frames were unfortunately all painted over in white. Through the living-room you entered a balcony that spanned the whole east side of the building.

The student who gave us the tour told us that the majority of the students do not realise that they are living in such an important and exemplary building. Even so the building was built in 1937 it is still one of the great examples of International Style and it‘s hard to comprehend that it is now in such a neglected state.

 

 

Mona El Amir

 

John Lautner, Chemosphere / Malin Residence, 1960, LA

After we visited the highlight of our trip the Sheats-Goldstein Residence, we went on our way to visit another famous building of Lautner The Chemosphere. It reminded us of a flying saucer and was visible to the naked eye from afar and we could see it from the Mulholland Drive. We parked our vehicles on the lower level of the Torreyson Drive and walked up to have a better view of The Chemosphere. Unfortunately we did not get a reply from the owner Benedict Taschen to visit the inside of the house, so we could only view it from the outside.

The in 1960 built dwelling still distinguished itself from the surrounding dwellings. It seems like it sits enthroned with complete peace and amenity above Los Angeles. On one side we were lucky that everything was green on the other side the lush green vegetation obstructed the view of the pillar and the view of the platform, which is located under the octagonal ground plan, as well as of the small cable car that leads to the entrance of the building.

Despite the exclusive architecture of the building it blends into it‘s environment. Through the previous visit to the Sheats-Goldstein Residence I became a fuller understanding of Lautners architecture and his genius, which until then i only knew from theory. Because of that I could visualise the inner space even so I could only see it from afar.

It seems to me that Lautner dwellings integrate their surroundings but still distinguished them from the outer space through the materials that he used. He created structures in which he materialises space and room and makes it noticeable for the inhabitants. In other words it is what is „Between“ what Lautner manifests in his architecture: that being between inside and outside that harmonise at the same time, the connection between heaven and earth and the play of opaque and translucent architecture. So is the Chemosphere an imposing building not bound by time and which exists without comparison.

 

 

Mona El Amir

John Lautner, Sheats-Goldstein Residence, 1963, Angelo View Drive, Los Angeles

John Lauter built the Sheats-Goldstein Residence in 1963 in order to demonstrate how private space could be included into the natural environment. The student of Frank  Lloyd Wright followed the tradition of his master by sticking with organic architecture. In comparison to Wright, he payed more attention to a unique style.

This purpose was realised not only by designing  main fitments like the furniture or windows,  he even created exclusive rugs for the house to do justice to the above demands.  As a matter of fact, he also worked on a light configuration on the remarkable steep slope, which might be the most iconic part of the building. He collaborated with the world-famous light artist James Turrell to create a separate light installation as a part of the midst of the artificially constructed jungle. But his Lautner’s unfortunate death prevented him from finishing this unique team play so that James Turrell had to finish it on his own. Nonetheless, we can grasp how important it was to him, creating an all around perfected way of modern living. He acquired the passion for detail from Wright but applied that principle to literally every detail to be found in a living space. By relating the outside to the inside with regard to the interior elements, he achieved an overall harmonious composition.

So what I expected before going to the site was perhaps the most impressive building of our field trip programme. When I saw parts of the house in the Coen brothers’ independent movie ‘The Big Lebowski (1998)’, I was impressed by the simple stony structures on the surfaces in the background. Furthermore, even in the film the furniture drew attention to itself because of its way of fitting into the interior. Everything seemed to be one piece. Every photograph that was taken from the in- and exterior confirms that impression.

Therefore, my focus during the visit had ought to be on the interplay between inside and outside, but also how Lautner mastered the claims of privacy and intimacy. If I were to interpret Sheats-Goldstein’s perfectionistic tendencies in a more pathological way it wouldn’t be too far-fetched to accuse him of having been a narcissist, due to evidence such as him leaving his shoes next to his bed for the guided tours. Moreover, one could argue, his ‚greed for power and privilege‘ would be satisfied thanks to his ability to see everything from his house without being seen by anyone from this.

Alexander Nebrass Eyber

Photos by the author.

Sources

Olsberg, Nicholas, Between Earth and Heaven. The Architecture of John Lautner, New York, 2008

Pierre Koenig, Stahl House, 1959, Woods Drive, Los Angeles

 

Pierre Koenig built the Stahl House, situated in Hollywood Hills, in 1958 for C.H. „Buck“ Stahl, an ex-football player, before proposing the project to the Arts & Architecture Magazine’s Case Study House Program. When it was accepted a year later, the Case Study House No. 22 (as it was called now) was ready to be moved into. Koenig’s vision to use industrial materials such as glass and steel in order to evoke an aeronautic-like construct was a huge avant-gardist step in the architecture of the 50’s, although not completely original. To the contrary, it could be considered to be in line with the glass pavilion cult which had been practised during the pre-war modernity era. The siting of the house on a sloping site enabled a unique panorama lookout over the periphery of the city. It hovers above LA whilst providing a scenic view in three directions.

Later in 1999, the International Styled building was declared a Historic-Cultural Monument by the Cultural Heritage Commission of the City of Los Angeles. Well-deservedly declared as such, considering that the architecture manages to combine the industrial-style, slope-resembling structure with classical features.

It didn’t take long  for CSH #22 to arouse Julius Shulman’s attention. The world-famous architectural photographer then found a new playground to snap. He knew exactly how to stage LA from this site and as a result, he raised a new awareness about the higher middle-classes’ prosperity. Of course, I was very curious what this place looks like in real life. The aesthetic effects are massive, but such a photogenic place might prove disappointing once actually being there.

Another point is that the Stahls as an originally working-class family constituted a rare exception with regard to the ownership. It seems surprising that the scope of the CSH included materially less fortunate owners, thus allocating considerably unconventional inhabitants to an iconic Californian villa. In most of the other luxury private homes we visited, more or less upper-class societies had resided. Hence, in greater detail, we were about to visit a private family place where three small children were raised in. I was rather sceptical whether the environment would be child-friendly after all.

Alexander Nebrass Eyber

Photos by the author.

Sources

Lubell, Sam and Douglas Woods, Julius Shulman Los Angeles. The birth of a modern metropolis, New York, 2011, S. 20-29.

http://culturela.org

 

Home

John Lautner, Silvertop, 1957, 2138 Micheltorena St; Richard Neutra, Neutra Colony, 1948-1961, Silver Lake Blvd, Neutra Place, Earl St; Rudolf M. Schindler, Droste House, 1940, 2025 Kenilworth Ave, Los Angeles, CA

 

View of Silver Lake neighbourhood
View of Silver Lake neighbourhood, image from Wikimedia Commons

The Silver Lake area in Los Angeles takes its name from one of the expansive water reservoirs five miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, the historic core of the city. Herman Silver was a member of the first city’s water commission who lend his name to the reservoirs. Silver Lake reservoir was constructed in 1906 and integral to William Mulholland’s plan to support LA’s water system. In 1989, it was declared a cultural monument by the cultural heritage commission. Sites are awarded these titles based on their architectural, historic and cultural merit.
In the beginning of the 1900s Silver Lake started to draw a bohemian crowd. Writers, architects and political activists flocked to this area. Visionary modernists started moving to this part of Los Angeles after Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Hollyhock House for Aline Barnsdall, a socialist and oil heiress. Silver Lake began to appeal to the creatives after it became home to a number of movie studios: The Mack Sennett Studios, The Mixville Studios, Talmadge, Monogram Studios and even the first official Disney Studio. Because of this, many screenwriters, set designers and cartoonists decided to move to Silver Lake. The population of artistically inclined people grew with time. And many were highly receptive of new architectural ideas. The ideal soil for avant-garde architects to build upon.

Silver Lake today includes architecture designed by Richard Neutra, Rudolf M. Schindler, Gregory Ain, John Lautner and Lloyd Wright among others. Neutra as well as Lautner decided to build their own homes in this neighbourhood. Now, the area displays a great number of Mid-Century Modern architecture as well as popular Spanish Colonial Revival, Spanish Mediterranean, French Normandy, English Tudor, Gothic, and Post-modern styles.
An accumulation of Neutra designed houses, colloquially known as ‚Neutra Conlony‘, sits on the East shore of Silver Lake. Right on Silver Lake Boulevard to the right of Earl Street one finds, from North to South: Sokol House (constructed in 1948), Inadomi House (1960), Kambara House (1960) and Yew House (1957). One street up the hill, parallel to the shore, runs Neutra Place. The cul-de-sac was officially renamed in the 1990s during a ceremony held by the city of LA. It now is the proud address to, from North to South, Reunion (1949), Flavin (1958), Ohara (1961) and Akai House (1961). On the opposing side of Earl Street Richard Neutra designed the Treweek House in 1948. All homes in the colony are characteristic examples to the architects’ style. Rectangular outlines, the lack of ornament, flat roofs, sliding glass walls and outdoor decks are overall present. Indoors and outdoors are intertwined, to enjoy the Californian weather in all aspects. Not far from the colony, on Glendale Boulevard, Richard and Dion Neutra set up their original office. The city of Los Angeles listed the building as a Historic-Cultural Monument.
On the Western hills of Silver Lake John Lautner built one of his masterpieces, the Silvertop. The grounds of the home include an infinity pool and a tennis court. Never inhabited by the original owners its design became well known thanks to the shimmering, arched roof. Ingenious engineering enabled a spacious interior with glass walls suspended from the ceiling. Hence enabling stunning views across Silver Lake and the mountains.
On the same side of the water reservoir Schindler constructed a three-story home for the Droste family in 1940. It boasts a two-story picture window as well as features all the elements of classical modern design.
With the resurge of interest in Californian modernism all of the houses accomplish large sums on the real estate market. For example, the Kambara House listed for the first time in 2014 for $2.3 Million. Today the entire Silver Lake area is a highly sought after neighbourhood and continues to thrive. Residents thoroughly enjoy the views, hip cafes and dog parks.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Hines, Thomas S.: Architecture of the Sun. Los Angeles Modernism 1900-1970, New York 2010
• Smith, Laura Massino: Architecture Tours L.A. Guidebook. Silver Lake, Atglen, PA 2007
• http://www.silverlake.org/about_silverlake/aboutsilverlake.htm (accessed last 16.03.2017)

Talitha Breidenstein

R. M. Schindler, Mackey Apartments – 1939-1940, Los Angeles

A white plastered, cubic building located in the Mid-Wilshire in Los Angeles, California and builted on a 6475 sf[1] of site area in an ordinary neighborhood.

That descriptive datas may sound quite unexciting, but what we look upon here is a masterpiece in south californian building culture of the 1930s. Rudolph M. Schindler is the architect.

When you stand in front of the building, you already get an impression of diverse levels, heights and a considered formation/arrangement of angles and forms[2]. A cube that looks like destructed and reconstructed: the emerging question, whether it is casually arranged or planned get answered if you enter the lot and further the interieur. Every piece is well tought-out.
Your’re welcomed by an accurately cut wall of green tamed by a clean white, plastered border which leads you to the frontwall of the building. There, your eyes are probably catched by the L-shaped window facade, bounded by a slender handrail.

It’s Schindler’s 2nd stylistic period of work, in which he creates this house for P. Mackey[3]. This ‚cubistic period’, so called by Esther McCoy, is mainly characterized by setbacks and a noticeable fenestration. „Everything was connected with everything“[4] – This is translated inside as well by using practical built-in furniture[5].

By idealizing Adolf Loos and his manifesto/ideas ‚Raumplan’[6]; he convert his idea of continued room and connected layers into the interior. The clerestory lightning[7] becomes his main tool; to create even more rooms and ‚chapters’ in this object.

The building stores 4 units[8] and a garage part, which ist attached by an additional windowed space on top of it back in 2010[9].
It inhabit today 4 artists in each unit for half a year as an incentive to further development/in order to work on projects and develope[10]; just in a Schindler type (of) manner.

Schindler was categorized as the onetime architects, who „lived up to the idea that home is a dwelling place for the body and the soul“[11].

Derya Kulatu

 

Sources:

[1] Falletta, Liz: By-Design. Mackey Apartments, http://byrightbydesign.com/blog/portfolio/mackey-apartments/ (Datum des Zugriffs: 12.03.2017).

[2] Wilson, Richard Guy: Die Metaphysik von Rudolph Schindler. Raum, Maschine und Moderne, In: Rudolph M. Schindler u. a. (Hg.): R. M. Schindler. Bauten und Projekte, o. O. 2001, S. 140.

[3] Hines, Thomas S.: The Frame for a Life. Rudolph Schindler’s Discordant Modernism, 1930-1953, In: Thomas S. Hines (Hg.): Architecure of the Sun. Los Angeles Modernism 1900-1970, New York 2010, S. 341.

[4] McCoy, Esther: Stephanie Oliver, Washington D. C. o. J., zit. nach Hines 2010 (wie Anm. 3), S. 329.

[5] Steele, James: R. M. Schindler 1887-1953. An Exploration of Space, o. O. 2001, S. 57.

[6] Hines 2010 (wie Anm. 3), S. 341.

[7] Steele 2001 (wie Anm. 4), S.57.

[8] Hines 2010 (wie Anm. 3), S. 341.

[9] Meyer, Kimberli i. a.: Sites. Mackey Apartments & Garage top, http://makcenter.org/sites/mackey-apartments-garage-top/ (Datum des Zugriffs: 12.03.2017).

[10] Meyer, Kimberli i. a.: Residency Program. Overview, http://makcenter.org/residency-program/ (Datum des Zugriffs: 12.03.2017).

[11] Hines 2010 (wie Anm. 3), S. 363.